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March 24, 2022


With age comes wisdom… and the ability to accept what you can and cannot change. Even with diligent skin care, the passage of time leaves its mark and, inevitably, wrinkles and fine lines appear. Crow’s feet, lion’s wrinkles, or marionette lines: learn to recognize them and treat them.

What is a wrinkle?

A wrinkle is simply a crease in the skin that develops as skin ages. The normal process of skin aging is characterized first by the sagging of the skin resulting from the deterioration of collagen fibres and then by the loss of volume due to a decrease in subcutaneous fat and a loss of bone density. Wrinkles affect everyone and first appear as fine lines, furrows of 0.2 to 1 millimeter and become wrinkles when their depth reaches 1 millimeter or more.

Types of wrinkles

Wrinkles fall into two categories: dynamic wrinkles and static wrinkles.

1. Dynamic wrinkles or “expression lines”

Related to repeated contractions of the facial muscles, dynamic wrinkles are generally the first to appear. They are the ones that appear when we smile, or frown and they are generally located in the upper part of the face. When we are young, expression lines disappear when we stop contracting our facial muscles. Over time, however, especially as the skin begins to lose its elasticity and firmness, they tend to deepen and become more noticeable and eventually permanent.

Some examples of dynamic wrinkles:

Forehead wrinkles (transverse): caused by the raising of the eyebrows
Glabella wrinkles (lion’s wrinkles): between the eyebrows and on the forehead, caused by the furrowing of the eyebrows
Crow’s feet: at the outer corners of the eyes, caused by contraction of the orbicular muscle of the eye
Bunny lines: between the bridge, the upper lateral edges of the nose and above the upper lip. They appear when smiling and in expressions of displeasure or disgust
Perioral (sun crease, smoker’s wrinkles): around the lips when pursing and closing the lips

2. Static wrinkles or “age lines”

These wrinkles are the result of skin sagging due to internal factors such as age and hormonal changes as well as the effects of external factors such as exposure to UV rays, pollution, smoking, stress, or a poor lifestyle. The loss of subcutaneous fat and bone mass, which are also part of the aging process, leads to a significant loss of volume, which is also responsible for age lines. These wrinkles are visible when the face is at rest and are generally located in the lower part of the face. 

Some examples of static wrinkles:

Marionette lines (bitterness folds), from the corners of the mouth to the chin
Nasolabial folds (smile lines), from the wings of the nose to the corners of the mouth
Neck wrinkles (neck lines, Venus lines): horizontal “ropes” or vertical folds 
Wrinkles of the décolleté

Sagging skin can also lead to the formation of “jowls”, and loss of volume can lead to sagging facial contours, sagging cheekbones, and dark circles (tear trough).


A- Protect yourself from the sun

Limit exposure to the sun, wear light-coloured clothing that covers the skin and always apply sunscreen before spending time outdoors. Choose broad-spectrum mineral sunscreens with an SPF50 rating.

B-Stay active

Regular physical activity reduces cortisol levels and promotes better production of collagen, a protein that is essential to the health and beauty of the skin.

C-Use the right products

Maximize skin oxygenation by exfoliating regularly and using moisturizing and anti-wrinkle products adapted to the nature and needs of the skin.

D-Care for your skin

Several in-clinic treatments such as the Functionalab glycolic peel, a photorejuvenation treatment, various lasers, a Thermage® or Ulthera treatment, to name a few, allow you to maintain and optimize the health of your skin. A consultation with one of our experts will allow you to determine which treatments are best suited to help you keep your skin young and healthy.

E-Avoid smoking

It is recognized that smoking is linked to premature aging of the skin, so it is strongly recommended not to smoke.

F-Stay well hydrated and nourished

Well-hydrated skin is firm, plump and radiant, which is why it is recommended to drink a minimum of 1.5 liters of water per day. A healthy diet, low in refined sugars and rich in antioxidants, is also essential to maintain healthy skin.


Approximately 90% of wrinkles are linked to frequent exposure to the sun’s ultraviolet rays.


Neuromodulators (or botulinum toxin such as Botox, Dysport, Nuceiva or Xeomin) and fillers (or volumizers such as Juvederm®, Esthelis®, Teosyal®, Restylane® or Radiesse) are two categories of products that act in a distinct way to reduce wrinkles. Safe and approved for many years by Health Canada, their effect is modulated and resorbs over time. 

neuromodulator is a protein (botulinum toxin type A) produced in a laboratory.

What areas of the face are neuromodulators used on?

Neuromodulators are generally used to treat dynamic or expression wrinkles in the upper face, such as:

› Forehead wrinkles  
› Glabella wrinkles 
› Crow’s feet

But also for:

› Perioral wrinkles
› Bunny wrinkles  
› Neck wrinkles 
› Marionette wrinkles 
› Orange peel chin

Filling agents (or volumizing agents) are used to fill static wrinkles and compensate for the loss of volume observed over time. In most cases, these are hyaluronic acid formulations (available in different viscosities depending on the areas to be treated) that are injected under the skin and not into the muscle like neuromodulators. Hyaluronic acid, a natural sugar derivative already present in the body, has the capacity to absorb more than a thousand times its weight in water, which makes it ultra-effective in hydrating and balancing the dermal volume. 

Another type of volumizer (Radiesse) is formulated from calcium hydroxyapatite microspheres that are also naturally present in the body. In addition to filling in wrinkles, it stimulates the cells responsible for collagen and elastin synthesis, thus increasing the skin’s tone and firmness.

Volumizers (hyaluronic acid) are injected into the dermis to fill in wrinkles and volume.

Volumizers are used mainly to:

-Create a lifting effect by filling in lost volume and give structure to certain areas of the face
-Reduce static wrinkles, fill in hollows or furrows 

Fillers can give your skin a smoother appearance, create balance in your face and enhance your natural beauty.

What areas of the face are fillers used on?

Volumizers are generally used to treat wrinkles in the lower face, such as

› Nasolabial fold and marionette lines
› Fine lip wrinkles  
› Neck and décolletage wrinkles

But also to:

› Add volume (cheeks, chin, lips)
› Define the contour of the lips and jawline
› Correct the tear trough (under eye circles)

Specially designed to reduce the risk of developing bruises following injections, Functionalab’s Pre/Post Inject cream also reduces their size and intensity and significantly accelerates their healing time.


Can we combine different injections?

Depending on the concerns and areas of the face to be treated, it is often recommended to combine injections of neuromodulators and volumizers in the same treatment. Take the time to discuss this with your doctor.

How do you prepare for treatment?

It is best to avoid taking aspirin and anti-inflammatory drugs one week before the injections and, if possible, avoid taking vitamin E, or drinking green tea and red wine to reduce the risk of bruising. The application of Functionalab Pre/Post Inject cream before and after your injections is recommended to reduce the risk of bruising. In the 48 to 72 hours following your treatment, exposure to extreme cold or heat that could cause significant sweating (sauna, spa, intense physical exercise) should be avoided.

Is it painful?

Most volumizers are combined with an anesthetic agent (lidocaine) to reduce discomfort. Treatments do not generally require additional anesthesia, except for injections in the lips. To treat the lips, which are more sensitive, a very effective analgesic cream is applied beforehand. In the case of neuromodulators, most patients do not feel any pain and the sensation is comparable to that of a very slight pinch that will last only a fraction of a second.

When are results visible?

For volumizing procedures, results are visible immediately after the appointment, although swelling may slightly alter the result. The result will be optimal approximately 1 to 2 weeks after the treatment. As for the neuromodulators, results can be seen quickly, usually three to five days after the treatment. However, it is necessary to wait about 2 weeks to benefit from their maximum effect.

How long do results last?

Depending on the type of filler used and the area treated, results generally last from 6 to 24 months. For neuromodulators, the duration of the results varies from person to person, but it is generally recommended to have a maintenance session every 3 to 6 months. Various factors can influence the duration of the effects such as age, past treatments, lifestyle, diet, sun exposure and facial structure.

Side effects

As with any type of injection, it is possible to observe a slight sensitivity at the injection site. Redness, small bruises, or minimal inflammation in the 24 to 48 hours following the treatment are also possible, but these discomforts are generally mild and short-lived.  


Women who are pregnant or nursing should postpone this treatment. In addition, patients with certain neuromuscular disorders should avoid neuromodulator injections.


The cost of volumizers (between $550 and $900/syringe) varies according to the range used and the type of molecules preferred by the doctors. They will choose the best product according to your skin type and the area to be treated. Half syringes are also available. Unlike volumizing injections, the price of neuromodulators is determined by unit and not by syringe. The number of units required varies according to the area treated and the strength of the muscles involved. At Dermapure, prices per unit start at $12 and vary from one neuromodulator to another and from clinic to clinic. During your consultation, you will be given an estimate of the number of units to be used, but it is your doctor who will be able to tell you the exact number of units required during your appointment.

Want to know more about our different technologies and how they can help you achieve your goals? Our experts are here to answer your questions about your unique needs. Visit our website or call us at  1 (877) 781-1811 to schedule a free consultation with our team of professionals*.

*Fees may apply for consultations with a physician. Some fees may be credited to your first appointment.

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